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Boxing is a a combat sport in which two people engage in a contest of strength, speed, reflexes, endurance, and will, by throwing punches at each other, usually with gloved hands. A boxing match typically consists of a determined number of three-minute rounds, a total of up to 12 rounds. The fight is controlled by a referee who works within the ring to judge and control the conduct of the fighters, rule on their ability to fight safely, count knocked-down fighters, and rule on fouls, while up to three judges are typically present at ringside to score the bout and assign points to the boxers, based on punches that connect, defense, knockdowns, and other (more subjective) measures.

While the origin of boxing as an organized sport may be its acceptance by the ancient Greeks as an Olympic game in BC 688, boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century, again initially in Great Britain and later in the United States.


There are four basic punches in boxing. The jab is a quick, long ranged, straight punch thrown with the lead hand from the guard position, often used as a tool to gauge distances, probe an opponent's defenses, and set up heavier, more powerful punches. The cross (or straight, or right) is a powerful straight punch thrown with the rear hand, accompanied by a counter‐clockwise rotation of the torso and the hips as the cross is thrown for additional power; it can follow a jab, creating the classic one‐two combo. The hook is a semi-circular punch thrown with the lead hand to the side of the opponent's head, propelled by a clockwise rotation of the torso and hips; it may also target the lower body and/or be thrown with the rear hand. Lastly, the uppercut is a vertical, rising punch, whose strategic utility depends on its ability to setting the opponent's body off‐balance for successive attacks. All these punches can be combined into combos.

There are several basic maneuvers a boxer can use in order to evade or block punches. Slipping consist in rotating the body slightly so that an incoming punch passes harmlessly next to the head, swaying is to anticipate a punch and move the upper body or head back so that it misses or has its force appreciably lessened, ducking is to drop down with the back straight so that a punch aimed at the head glances or misses entirely, bobbing moves the head laterally and beneath an incoming punch, parrying or blocking uses the boxer's shoulder, hands or arms as defensive tools to protect against incoming attacks, and covering up is the last opportunity to avoid an incoming strike to an unprotected face or body, helding the hands high to protect the head and chin and the forearms are tucked against the torso to impede body shots.

The clinch is a form of trapping, or a rough form of grappling, and occurs when the distance between both fighters has closed and straight punches cannot be employed. In this situation, the boxer attempts to hold the opponent's hands so he is unable to throw hooks or uppercuts. To perform a clinch, the boxer loops both hands around the outside of the opponent's shoulders, scooping back under the forearms to grasp the opponent's arms tightly against his own body. In this position, the opponent's arms are pinned and cannot be used to attack. Clinching is a temporary match state and is quickly dissipated by the referee. Clinching is technically against the rules, and in amateur fights points are deducted fairly quickly for it (it is unlikely, however, to see points deducted for a clinch in professional boxing).

In general, boxers are prohibited from hitting below the belt, holding, tripping, pushing, biting, or spitting. They also are prohibited from kicking, head-butting, or hitting with any part of the arm other than the knuckles of a closed fist, including hitting with the elbow, shoulder or forearm, as well as with open gloves, the wrist, the inside, back or side of the hand. They are prohibited as well from hitting the back, back of the neck or head or the kidneys. They are prohibited from holding the ropes for support when punching, holding an opponent while punching, or ducking below the belt of their opponent, no matter the distance between.




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